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This method is especially useful in paleontology, due to phylogenetic data of the most of extinct groups are dubious or even incomplete. Also, it is a tool potentially useful to identify distributional patterns e. Craw , Croizat , Page , Morrone and some recent studies confirm the validity of the method to be applied to living and extinct species e.

Morrone , Gallo et al.

We found a total of localities distributed in this decreasing order: Notiomastodon 95 ; Cuvieronius 46 ; Glossotherium 46 ; Eremotherium 42 ; Equus 40 ; Pampatherium 33 ; Glyptodon 30 ; Hippidion 27 ; Megatherium 27 ; Lestodon 24 ; Glyptotherium 23 ; Hemiauchenia 23 ; Panochthus 23 ; Mylodon 19 ; Palaeolama 18 ; Macrauchenia 14 ; Scelidotherium 9 ; Hoplophorus 6 ; Parapanochthus 4.

Although some of the fossils and localities analyzed do not have a detailed dating definition, we assume that all included data are from the Late Pleistocene. The panbiogeographical method of track analysis consists basically of plotting locality records of different taxa on maps and connecting them using lines following a criterion of minimum distance, to constitute individual tracks distribution areas.

These tracks are superimposed and the coincidence of them corresponds to a generalized track areas of endemism , providing a spatial criterion to biogeographic homology Morrone and allowing to infer the existence of an ancestral biota widespread in the past and later fragmented by vicariant events. When two or more generalized tracks converge or superimpose in an area, a biogeographic node is determined, implying that different ancestral biotas interrelated, possibly in different geologic times, and formed a composite or hybrid area.

Furthermore, the nodes may represent endemism, high diversity, and distribution boundaries Craw et al.

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Individual tracks were constructed for each species by plotting the localities on present-day world maps with the help of the software ArcView v3. Generalized tracks and biogeographic nodes were drawn by hand. From the 27 individual tracks i. Hippidion devillei and Scelidotherium leptocephalus did not participate in the composition of any generalized track.

The GTs regions were recognized and named based on Morrone biogeographic province definitions. Several studies e. Salgado-Labouriau et al. Only in the Late Pleistocene the levels of temperature and humidity began to approximate to the present-day levels. The biogeographic nodes coincided with the limits between the main plant formations of South America during the Pleistocene: node 1 coincided with the boundary between the grassland and open forest areas; and node 2 coincided with the boundary between the Brazilian open forest and open savanna areas.

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These patterns confirm the importance of the climate conditions in the distribution of the Late Pleistocene megafauna. Comparing the generalized tracks Fig. This coincidence between tracks of living and fossil taxa suggests that certain recent biogeographic patterns were also present during the Late Pleistocene. When we compared our results to other studies related to Pleistocene biogeography, we verified that the GTs 5 and 6 coincided with the Intertropical Region proposed by Cartelle According to this study, this region would house some megafauna taxa of pampean origin e.

Equus neogeus , Hippidion devillei , H.

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  • Parapanochthus and Hoplophorus confirmed by the composition of GTs. However, the generalized tracks indicate the division of this region in two parts, with the node 2 showing the area where this division occurred. The GTs 5 and 6 are partially in agreement with Costa et al.

    The GT 2 coincided partly with some refugium areas proposed by Haffer and Prance , situated in Bolivia and Peru. Although these areas possess some biogeographic meaning, the existence of refugia is debatable, because there are some evidences that Amazonia was never fragmented Colinvaux et al. The biogeographic node 1 is related to the contact between tropical and more temperate taxa and coincides with an area today composed by south Brazil, northwest Uruguay and Argentinian Mesopotamia Missiones, Corrientes and Entre Rios provinces.

    According to Carlini et al. Overall, the generalized tracks and biogeographic nodes coincided with the limits between the main vegetal formations of South America during the Pleistocene de Vivo and Carmignotto GT 3 coincided with the limit between the Argentinean desert and the Chilean open forest; part of the GT 4 coincided with the limits between the desert and steppe formations; node 1 coincided with the limit between the steppe and open forest formations; GTs 5 and 6 and node 2 coincided with limits between the great open savanna area in Brazil and the open forest formation.

    These data confirm the importance that vegetation and climate conditions had in the distributional patterns of herbivore megamammals during the Pleistocene in South America, and probably the changing on those conditions were the main cause for their extinctions. We thank Juan J. Panbiogeographical analysis of the genus Bomarea Alstroemeriaceae. J Biogeogr Arzamendia V and Giraudo AR.

    Influence of large South American rivers of the Plata Basin on distributional patterns of tropical snakes: a panbiogeographical analysis. Late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics in southeastern Brazil, inferences from marine cores GeoB and GeoB Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol Boletin no. J S Am Earth Sci Carnaval AC and Moritz C. Historical climate modelling predicts patterns of current biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    Cartelle C. Pleistocene mammals of the Cerrado and Caatinga of Brazil. Cavalcanti MJ and Gallo V. Panbiogeographical analysis of distribution patterns in hagfishes Craniata: Myxinidae. Did humans cause large mammal Late Pleistocene-Holocene extinction in South America in a context of shrinking open areas? Amazonian and Neotropical plant communities on glacial time-scales: the failure of the aridity and refuge hypotheses.

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    Current Science. Blair Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. New Haven : Yale University Press. American Museum Novitates. Bond; M. Reguero; S. Marenssi Francis; D. Pirrie; J. Crame eds. Cretaceous-tertiary high-latitude palaeoenvironments: James Ross Basin, Antarctica. Geological Society, London, Special Publications.

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    The Geological Society of London. Bibcode : Natur. Nature Communications. Bibcode : NatCo PLoS Biology. August Paleobiologia Neotropical. III Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. September Molecular Biology and Evolution.

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